Download Book Smoke But No Fire Full in PDF

Smoke But No Fire


Publisher : Univ of California Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0520385802
Pages : 264 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (23 users)
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Summary Book Review Smoke But No Fire by Jessica S. Henry:

Download or read book Smoke But No Fire written by Jessica S. Henry and published by Univ of California Press. This book was released on 2021-10-05 with total page 264 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: 2020 Foreword INDIES Book of the Year Awards Winner, Silver (Political and Social Sciences) Winner of the Montaigne Medal, awarded to "the most thought-provoking books" The first book to explore a shocking yet all-too-common type of wrongful conviction—one that locks away innocent people for crimes that never actually happened. Rodricus Crawford was convicted and sentenced to die for the murder by suffocation of his beautiful baby boy. After years on death row, evidence confirmed what Crawford had claimed all along: he was innocent, and his son had died from an undiagnosed illness. Crawford is not alone. A full one-third of all known exonerations stem from no-crime wrongful convictions. The first book to explore this common but previously undocumented type of wrongful conviction, Smoke but No Fire tells the heartbreaking stories of innocent people convicted of crimes that simply never happened. A suicide is mislabeled a homicide. An accidental fire is mislabeled an arson. Corrupt police plant drugs on an innocent suspect. A false allegation of assault is invented to resolve a custody dispute. With this book, former New York City public defender Jessica S. Henry sheds essential light on a deeply flawed criminal justice system that allows—even encourages—these convictions to regularly occur. Smoke but No Fire promises to be eye-opening reading for legal professionals, students, activists, and the general public alike as it grapples with the chilling reality that far too many innocent people spend real years behind bars for fictional crimes.

Download Book Life Without Parole Full in PDF

Life Without Parole


Publisher : NYU Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0814762484
Pages : 334 pages
Rating : 4.8/5 (147 users)
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Summary Book Review Life Without Parole by Charles J. Ogletree:

Download or read book Life Without Parole written by Charles J. Ogletree and published by NYU Press. This book was released on 2012-06-04 with total page 334 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Is life without parole the perfect compromise to the death penalty? Or is it as ethically fraught as capital punishment? This comprehensive, interdisciplinary anthology treats life without parole as “the new death penalty.” Editors Charles J. Ogletree, Jr. and Austin Sarat bring together original work by prominent scholars in an effort to better understand the growth of life without parole and its social, cultural, political, and legal meanings. What justifies the turn to life imprisonment? How should we understand the fact that this penalty is used disproportionately against racial minorities? What are the most promising avenues for limiting, reforming, or eliminating life without parole sentences in the United States? Contributors explore the structure of life without parole sentences and the impact they have on prisoners, where the penalty fits in modern theories of punishment, and prospects for (as well as challenges to) reform.

Download Book The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy Full in PDF

The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy


Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release Date :
ISBN : 1506314317
Pages : 1280 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (63 users)
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Summary Book Review The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy by Edward S. Neukrug:

Download or read book The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy written by Edward S. Neukrug and published by SAGE Publications. This book was released on 2015-02-12 with total page 1280 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: The SAGE Encyclopedia of Theory in Counseling and Psychotherapy is a two-volume source that traces theory and examines the beginnings of counseling and psychotherapy all the way to current trends and movements. This reference work draws together a team of international scholars that examine the global landscape of all the key counseling and psychotherapy theories and the theorists behind them while presenting them in context needed to understand their strengths and weaknesses. This is a quick, one-stop source that gives the reader the “who, what, where, how, and why” of contemporary counseling and psychotherapy theory. From historical context in which the theories were developed to the theoretical underpinnings which drive the theories, this reference encyclopedia has detailed and relevant information for all individuals interested in this subject matter. Features & Benefits: Approximately 335 signed entries fill two volumes available in a choice of print or electronic formats. Back matter includes a Chronology of theory within the field of counseling to help students put individual theories within a broader context. A Master Bibliography and a Resource Guide to key books, journals, and organizations guide students to further resources beyond the encyclopedia. The Reader’s Guide, a detailed Index and the Cross References combine for effective search-and-browse in the e-version and helps students take the next steps in their research journeys. This reference encyclopedia serves as an excellent source for any individual interested in the roots of contemporary counseling and psychotherapy theory. It is ideal for the public and professionals, as well as for students in counselor education programs especially those individuals who are pursuing a Masters level degree.

Download Book The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development Full in PDF

The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development


Publisher : Cambridge University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0521868823
Pages : 723 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (218 users)
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Summary Book Review The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development by Linda Mayes:

Download or read book The Cambridge Handbook of Environment in Human Development written by Linda Mayes and published by Cambridge University Press. This book was released on 2012-08-27 with total page 723 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: This volume takes the child's environment (culture, education, family, peers and media) as an essential component of child development.

Download Book Crime and Criminal Justice Full in PDF

Crime and Criminal Justice


Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release Date :
ISBN : 1506351859
Pages : 456 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (63 users)
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Summary Book Review Crime and Criminal Justice by Stacy L. Mallicoat:

Download or read book Crime and Criminal Justice written by Stacy L. Mallicoat and published by SAGE Publications. This book was released on 2016-07-08 with total page 456 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Crime and Criminal Justice: Concepts and Controversies (by Stacy L. Mallicoat) introduces students to the key concepts of the criminal justice system and invites them to explore emerging issues. Students will gain a balanced perspective of the criminal justice system through Current Controversy debates at the end of each chapter that motivate students to apply what they learned by critically analyzing and discussing the pros and cons of the issues presented. Examining important, but often overlooked, components, such as the role of victims and policy, Crime and Criminal Justice helps students develop a foundational understanding of the structures, agencies, and functions of the criminal justice system, as well as build the confidence and skills they need to effectively analyze current issues in criminal justice.

Download Book Hate Crimes [5 Volumes] Full in PDF

Hate Crimes [5 Volumes]


Publisher : Greenwood Publishing Group
Release Date :
ISBN : 9780275995690
Pages : 1200 pages
Rating : 4.9/5 (956 users)
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Summary Book Review Hate Crimes [5 Volumes] by Barbara Perry:

Download or read book Hate Crimes [5 Volumes] written by Barbara Perry and published by Greenwood Publishing Group. This book was released on 2009-02-28 with total page 1200 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: The twentieth century appeared to close much as it had opened - with sprees of violence directed against "the Other." The murder of Matthew Shepard, the lynching of James Byrd, the murderous rampage of Benjamin Smith, and post-9/11 anti-Muslim violence all stand as reminders that the bigotry that kills is much more than an unfortunate chapter in U.S. history. Racial, gender, ethnic and religious violence persist. This riveting new set focused on hate crimes comes at a time when such acts are still not uncommon. The topic, then, remains relevant despite outcries for an end to such violence. It covers a wide variety of hate crimes, the consequences for both victims and perpetrators and their communities, efforts to combat hate crime, and other aspects of these ugly offenses that affect everyone.

Download Book American Prisons Full in PDF

American Prisons


Publisher : Taylor & Francis
Release Date :
ISBN : 1317616820
Pages : 242 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (176 users)
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Summary Book Review American Prisons by David Musick:

Download or read book American Prisons written by David Musick and published by Taylor & Francis. This book was released on 2017-05-18 with total page 242 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Imprisonment has become big business in the United States. Using a "history of ideas" approach, this book examines the cultural underpinnings of prisons in the United States and explores how shared ideas about imprisonment evolve into a complex, loosely connected nationwide system of prisons that keeps enough persons to populate a small nation behind bars, razor wire and electrified fences. Tracing both the history of the prison and the very idea of imprisonment in the United States, this book provides students with a critical overview of American prisons and considers their past, their present and directions for the future. Topics covered include: • a history of imprisonment in America from 1600 to the present day; • the twentieth-century prison building binge; • the relationship between U.S. prisons and the private sector; • a critical account of capital punishment; • less-visible prison minorities, including women, children and the elderly; and • sex, violence and disease in prison. This comprehensive book is essential reading for advanced courses on corrections and correctional management and offers a compelling and provocative analysis of the realities of American penal culture from past to present. It is perfect reading for students of criminal justice, corrections, penology and the sociology of punishment.

Download Book Free Speech and Hate Speech in the United States Full in PDF

Free Speech and Hate Speech in the United States


Publisher : Routledge
Release Date :
ISBN : 1000203417
Pages : 224 pages
Rating : 4.0/5 (2 users)
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Summary Book Review Free Speech and Hate Speech in the United States by Chris Demaske:

Download or read book Free Speech and Hate Speech in the United States written by Chris Demaske and published by Routledge. This book was released on 2020-10-08 with total page 224 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Free Speech and Hate Speech in the United States explores the concept and treatment of hate speech in light of escalating social tensions in the global twenty-first century, proposing a shift in emphasis from the negative protection of individual rights toward a more positive support of social equality. Drawing on Axel Honneth’s theory of recognition, the author develops a two-tiered framework for free speech analysis that will promote a strategy for combating hate speech. To illustrate how this framework might impact speech rights in the U.S., she looks specifically at hate speech in the context of symbolic speech, disparaging speech, internet speech and speech on college campuses. Entering into an ongoing debate about the role of speech in society, this book will be of key importance to First Amendment scholars, and to scholars and students of communication studies, media studies, media law, political science, feminist studies, American studies, and history.

Download Book Crime and Criminal Behavior Full in PDF

Crime and Criminal Behavior


Publisher : SAGE Publications
Release Date :
ISBN : 1452266441
Pages : 344 pages
Rating : 4.4/5 (522 users)
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Summary Book Review Crime and Criminal Behavior by William J. Chambliss:

Download or read book Crime and Criminal Behavior written by William J. Chambliss and published by SAGE Publications. This book was released on 2011-05-03 with total page 344 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Crime and Criminal Behavior delves into such hotly debated topics as age of consent, euthanasia and assisted suicide, gambling, guns, internet pornography, marijuana and other drug laws, religious convictions, and terrorism and extremism. From using a faking I.D. to assaulting one's domestic partner to driving drunk, a vast array of behaviors fit into the definition of criminal. The authors of these 20 chapters examine the historical contexts of each topic and offer arguments both for and against the ways in which legislators and courts have defined and responded to criminal behaviors, addressing the sometimes complex policy considerations involved. Sensitive subjects such as hate crimes are addressed, as are crimes carried out by large groups or states, including war crime and corporate crime. This volume also considers crimes that are difficult to prosecute, such as Internet crime and intellectual property crime, and crimes about which there is disagreement as to whether the behavior harms society or the individual involved (gun control and euthanasia, for example). The Series The five brief, issues-based books in SAGE Reference's Key Issues in Crime & Punishment Series offer examinations of controversial programs, practices, problems or issues from varied perspectives. Volumes correspond to the five central subfields in the Criminal Justice curriculum: Crime & Criminal Behavior, Policing, The Courts, Corrections, and Juvenile Justice. Each volume consists of approximately 20 chapters offering succinct pro/con examinations, and Recommended Readings conclude each chapter, highlighting different approaches to or perspectives on the issue at hand. As a set, these volumes provide perfect reference support for students writing position papers in undergraduate courses spanning the Criminal Justice curriculum. Each title is approximately 350 pages in length.

Download Book The Meaning of Life Full in PDF

The Meaning of Life


Publisher : The New Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 162097410X
Pages : 204 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (29 users)
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Summary Book Review The Meaning of Life by Marc Mauer:

Download or read book The Meaning of Life written by Marc Mauer and published by The New Press. This book was released on 2018-12-11 with total page 204 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: “I can think of no authors more qualified to research the complex impact of life sentences than Marc Mauer and Ashley Nellis. They have the expertise to track down the information that all citizens need to know and the skills to translate that research into accessible and powerful prose.” —Heather Ann Thompson, author of the Pulitzer Prize–winning Blood in the Water From the author of the classic Race to Incarcerate, a forceful and necessary argument for eliminating life sentences, including profiles of six people directly impacted by life sentences by formerly incarcerated author Kerry Myers Most Western democracies have few or no people serving life sentences, yet here in the United States more than 200,000 people are sentenced to such prison terms. Marc Mauer and Ashley Nellis of The Sentencing Project argue that there is no practical or moral justification for a sentence longer than twenty years. Harsher sentences have been shown to have little effect on crime rates, since people “age out” of crime—meaning that we’re spending a fortune on geriatric care for older prisoners who pose little threat to public safety. Extreme punishment for serious crime also has an inflationary effect on sentences across the spectrum, helping to account for severe mandatory minimums and other harsh punishments. A thoughtful and stirring call to action, The Meaning of Life also features moving profiles of a half dozen people affected by life sentences, written by former “lifer” and award-winning writer Kerry Myers. The book will tie in to a campaign spearheaded by The Sentencing Project and offers a much-needed road map to a more humane criminal justice system.

Download Book Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions [2 volumes] Full in PDF

Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions [2 volumes]


Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release Date :
ISBN : 1610695925
Pages : 695 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (16 users)
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Summary Book Review Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions [2 volumes] by Randal W. Summers:

Download or read book Social Psychology: How Other People Influence Our Thoughts and Actions [2 volumes] written by Randal W. Summers and published by ABC-CLIO. This book was released on 2016-12-12 with total page 695 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: This book provides an introduction to social psychology that covers its history, theories, and core concepts. It explains intrapersonal (how others influence our views about ourselves) and interpersonal (how we think about and act toward other people) applications of this discipline in today's society. • Presents perspectives on many contemporary issues—such as shooting events, terrorism, autism, post-traumatic effects on veterans, transgender issues, prejudice, and antisocial behavior—that help readers to develop critical thinking abilities • Briefly reviews the contributions of famous psychologists and well-known social psychology experiments • Examines topics holistically, providing a thorough and accessible overview of the subject • Includes a bibliography of print and electronic sources for further study as well as a glossary that defines unfamiliar terms

Download Book Taming the Presumption of Innocence Full in PDF

Taming the Presumption of Innocence


Publisher : Oxford University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0190469196
Pages : 288 pages
Rating : 4.1/5 (94 users)
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Summary Book Review Taming the Presumption of Innocence by Richard L. Lippke:

Download or read book Taming the Presumption of Innocence written by Richard L. Lippke and published by Oxford University Press. This book was released on 2016-03-01 with total page 288 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: The notion that an individual accused of a crime is presumed innocent until proven guilty is one of the cornerstones of the American criminal justice system. However, the presumption of innocence creates a number of practical and theoretical issues, particularly regarding pre-trial and post-trial processes. In Taming the Presumption of Innocence, Richard L. Lippke argues that the presumption of innocence should be contained to the criminal trial. Beyond the realm of the trial, legal professionals, investigators, and the general public should carry out their respective roles in the criminal justice process without making any presumptions about guilt or innocence whatsoever. Rather than eschewing the significance of the presumption of innocence, the book defends its role within its proper context, the criminal trial. According to Lippke, other aspects of the criminal justice system such as investigation, lawmaking, and treatment of ex-offenders should be conducted in such a way that reflects the fallibility and unpredictability of the system without involving the issue of presumed guilt or innocence. Lippke dispels the idea that the presumption of innocence can be used to remedy some of the current issues in the practice of criminal justice, and instead proposes engaging in deeper, more substantive reforms of the American criminal justice system. The first monograph dedicated exclusively to the presumption of innocence, Taming the Presumption of Innocence will be an ideal text for students and scholars of criminology, criminal justice, and legal theory.

Download Book Battleground: Criminal Justice [2 volumes] Full in PDF

Battleground: Criminal Justice [2 volumes]


Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release Date :
ISBN : 0313088039
Pages : 872 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (13 users)
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Summary Book Review Battleground: Criminal Justice [2 volumes] by Gregg Barak:

Download or read book Battleground: Criminal Justice [2 volumes] written by Gregg Barak and published by ABC-CLIO. This book was released on 2007-10-30 with total page 872 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: There are many controversial aspects of our criminal justice system, and this encyclopedia examines the most significant controversies throughout American history with emphasis on current debates, trends, and issues. Arranged alphabetically, approximately 100 entries cover background, explanations, notable cases and events, various sides of an issue, and what to expect in the future. Entries are objective and factual, allowing readers to formulate their own conclusions. Sidebars and case examples help to illustrate each entry, and sources for further reading point readers to other important materials. Given the prevalance of controversial criminal justice topics in the news, this timely reference is an important resource for anyone interested in crime and justice. Entries include: Boot Camps, Corporal Punishment, DNA Evidence, Domestic Violence, Expert Testimony, Eye Witness Identifications, Gun Control, Homeland Security, International Criminal Court, Legalization of Marijuana, Mental Health and Insanity, Police Brutality, Prison Violence, Racial Profiling, School Violence, Sex Offender Laws, Stalking Laws, Supermax Prisons, Three Strikes, Treating Juveniles as Adults, War on Drugs, and more.

Download Book Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues [4 volumes] Full in PDF

Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues [4 volumes]


Publisher : ABC-CLIO
Release Date :
ISBN : 0313392056
Pages : 1707 pages
Rating : 4.3/5 (133 users)
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Summary Book Review Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues [4 volumes] by Michael Shally-Jensen:

Download or read book Encyclopedia of Contemporary American Social Issues [4 volumes] written by Michael Shally-Jensen and published by ABC-CLIO. This book was released on 2010-12-22 with total page 1707 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: This single-source reference will help students and general readers alike understand the most critical issues facing American society today. • Four volumes divided by subject area • 225 entries written by experienced researchers and professionals who are experts in their fields • Charts and graphs • Comprehensive bibliographies at the end of each topic volume • Sidebars containing interesting and useful tangents to the main discussion • Further reading section at end of each entry, including Internet links

Download Book Searching for a Demon Full in PDF

Searching for a Demon


Publisher : UPNE
Release Date :
ISBN : 9781555535414
Pages : 272 pages
Rating : 4.5/5 (354 users)
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Summary Book Review Searching for a Demon by Steven M. Chermak:

Download or read book Searching for a Demon written by Steven M. Chermak and published by UPNE. This book was released on 2002 with total page 272 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: This provocative volume thoroughly examines the ways in which the media demonized militia groups following the devastating bombing of the Alfred F. Murrah building in Oklahoma City. Using quantitative and qualitative research methods, Steven M. Chermak offers a fresh perspective on how news coverage and popular entertainment transformed a largely overlooked movement into a symbol for this new threat of domestic terrorism and ignited a national panic over the "militia menace." Searching for a Demon describes the representation of the militia movement in the news media, editorial cartoons, films, and television. Chermak delves into such topics as the type and amount of coverage after the blast, how social problems are constructed in the news, the motivations and biases of authoritative or "celebrity" figures used as news sources, and why images of militias were framed in specific ways. Chermak balances his account with an in-depth look at the philosophies, activities, and strategies of militia groups. Drawing on extensive interviews he conducted at gun shows and preparedness exhibitions, the author compares and contrasts media depictions of militia life and ideology with the firsthand accounts of members and leaders themselves, and he assesses how media coverage affected changes in the movement. In conclusion, Chermak discusses the parallels between media treatment of militias in the wake of the Oklahoma City bombing and the coverage of the al-Qaeda terrorist network after the September 11, 2001, attacks. Solidly grounded in social constructionist theory, Searching for a Demon fills a significant gap in the literature on terrorism as well as on the roles of the news media and popular culture in reshaping the public consciousness after dramatic crimes.

Download Book Making Hate A Crime Full in PDF

Making Hate A Crime


Publisher : Russell Sage Foundation
Release Date :
ISBN : 1610443144
Pages : 236 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (14 users)
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Summary Book Review Making Hate A Crime by Valerie Jenness:

Download or read book Making Hate A Crime written by Valerie Jenness and published by Russell Sage Foundation. This book was released on 2001-08-15 with total page 236 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Violence motivated by racism, anti-Semitism, misogyny, and homophobia weaves a tragic pattern throughout American history. Fueled by recent high-profile cases, hate crimes have achieved an unprecedented visibility. Only in the past twenty years, however, has this kind of violence—itself as old as humankind—been specifically categorized and labeled as hate crime. Making Hate a Crime is the first book to trace the emergence and development of hate crime as a concept, illustrating how it has become institutionalized as a social fact and analyzing its policy implications. In Making Hate a Crime Valerie Jenness and Ryken Grattet show how the concept of hate crime emerged and evolved over time, as it traversed the arenas of American politics, legislatures, courts, and law enforcement. In the process, violence against people of color, immigrants, Jews, gays and lesbians, women, and persons with disabilities has come to be understood as hate crime, while violence against other vulnerable victims-octogenarians, union members, the elderly, and police officers, for example-has not. The authors reveal the crucial role social movements played in the early formulation of hate crime policy, as well as the way state and federal politicians defined the content of hate crime statutes, how judges determined the constitutional validity of those statutes, and how law enforcement has begun to distinguish between hate crime and other crime. Hate crime took on different meanings as it moved from social movement concept to law enforcement practice. As a result, it not only acquired a deeper jurisprudential foundation but its scope of application has been restricted in some ways and broadened in others. Making Hate a Crime reveals how our current understanding of hate crime is a mix of political and legal interpretations at work in the American policymaking process. Jenness and Grattet provide an insightful examination of the birth of a new category in criminal justice: hate crime. Their findings have implications for emerging social problems such as school violence, television-induced violence, elder-abuse, as well as older ones like drunk driving, stalking, and sexual harassment. Making Hate a Crime presents a fresh perspective on how social problems and the policies devised in response develop over time. A Volume in the American Sociological Association's Rose Series in Sociology

Download Book Punishing Hate Full in PDF

Punishing Hate


Publisher : Harvard University Press
Release Date :
ISBN : 0674040015
Pages : 285 pages
Rating : 4.6/5 (74 users)
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Summary Book Review Punishing Hate by Frederick M. Lawrence:

Download or read book Punishing Hate written by Frederick M. Lawrence and published by Harvard University Press. This book was released on 2009-06-30 with total page 285 pages. Available in PDF, EPUB and Kindle. Book Synopsis: Bias crimes are a scourge on our society. Is there a more terrifying image in the mind's eye than that of the burning cross? Punishing Hate examines the nature of bias-motivated violence and provides a foundation for understanding bias crimes and their treatment under the U.S. legal system. In this tightly argued book, Frederick Lawrence poses the question: Should bias crimes be punished more harshly than similar crimes that are not motivated by bias? He answers strongly in the affirmative, as do a great many scholars and citizens, but he is the first to provide a solid theoretical grounding for this intuitive agreement, and a detailed model for a bias crimes statute based on the theory. The book also acts as a strong corrective to recent claims that concern about hate crimes is overblown. A former prosecutor, Lawrence argues that the enhanced punishment of bias crimes, with a substantial federal law enforcement role, is not only permitted by doctrines of criminal and constitutional law but also mandated by our societal commitment to equality. Drawing upon a wide variety of sources, from law and criminology, to sociology and social psychology, to today's news, Punishing Hate will have a lasting impact on the contentious debate over treatment of bias crimes in America.